INTRODUCTION:

  • The genus Brucella consist of small, non-motile, aerobic, Gram-Negative, Cocco-bacilli and grow poorly on ordinary media. They are strict intracellular parasites of domesticated animals (Goats, Sheep,Cattel, Buffaloes, Pigs) and may also infect humans.
  • Brucellosis is a zoonotic infection transmitted to humans contact with fluids from infected animals (sheep, cattle, goats, pigs, or other animals) derived food products such as unpasteurized milk and cheese . The disease is rarely, if ever, transmitted between humans.
  • Brucellosis, also called Bang's disease, Crimean fever, Malta fever, Maltese fever, Mediterranean fever, rock fever, or undulant fever, is a highly contagious zoonosis caused by ingestion of unsterilized milk or meat from infected animals or close contact with their secretions.

HISTORY

  • In 1887, Davit Bruce (surgeon,Military Doctor) isolated microoranism (micrococcus melitensis) from spleens of fetal cases of British soldiers at Malta. 
  • Brucella melitensis( malta fever) in honor of Bruce 
  • In 1905, Zammit ( Maltese Bacteriologist) ; demonastred B.melitensis carry in goats milk and transmitted to man by goat raw milk
  • In 1897, Bang discovered B.abortus in copenhagen- cottel 
  • In 1814, Tratum, isolate B. suis from feotus of a pig in USA.
  • B. neotomae- Desert rodents
  • B. ovis - rams
  • B. canis – dog
  • B. maris – dolphin ( marine mammals- unrecognise brucella spp in 1994)